Read your National Geographics more carefully. The article has nothing to do with disproving either the Big Bang or cosmic expansion. It has only to do with the failure of one experiment to detect gravitational waves. I quote (in case you missed it), and the emphasis is mine: "To be blunt, therefore, the BICEP2… » 2/23/15 3:29pm Monday 3:29pm

When Imagination Fails

Science fiction has long been looked to as a source of prophecy...but why? Perhaps because, out of necessity, its futures work: spaceships fly and inventions are successful because they need to be—there'd be no story without them. And because more often than not (to paraphrase Jules Verne) whatever one man can imagine… » 1/15/15 11:16am 1/15/15 11:16am

I'm not too sure what your question means. If you are asking if the amount of light reflecting from a planet depends on its size and the nature of its surface, you are right. Venus, for instance, would be a very bright object, much brighter than a full moon, while Mercury, which is smaller and has a very dark surface,… » 1/02/15 5:38am 1/02/15 5:38am